In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of experimental measurements that characterized the electromagnetic environment (EME) inside a Boeing 757 airliner while in flight, Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into a commercially configured aircraft as it was flown in close proximity to ground-based radio frequency (RF) transmitters operating at approximately 26, 173. and 430 MHz. The goal of this experiment was to collect data for the verification of analytical predictions of the internal aircraft response to an external stimulus. This paper describes the experiment, presents the data collected by it, and discusses techniques used to compute both the magnitude of the electric field illuminating the aircraft and its direction of propagation relative to a coordinate system fixed to the aircraft. The latter is determined from Global Positioning System (GPS) and aircraft Inertial Reference Unit (IRU) data. The paper concludes with an examination of the shielding effectiveness of the test aircraft. as determined by comparison of' the measured internal EME and computed external EME.